CentOS 6.2 上编译安装 Nginx 1.0.15 + PHP 5.3.16 + MySQL 5.1.62

更新:

2012-05-28 initial 2012-09-01 去掉eAccelerator,添加APC;将PHP更新到5.3.16 2012-09-13 修复MySQL启动问题;将pid和MySQL的data存放到/home/mysql目录下;编译PHP时添加mysql pdo

补充教程:

《在不停机下为PHP安装APC加速》

《Nginx日志自动切割脚本》


LNMP的好处就不说了,特别是对于这个正在运行的小内存VPS。鉴于师傅的淫威,我只能手工编译安装Nginx 1.0.15 + PHP 5.3.12 + MySQL 5.1.62 + eAccelerator 0.9.6.1,不能使用各种一键安装包,以及使用yum命令,因为他说“不手动试一下怎么能学到东西”。废话不说,先将步骤和代码贴出来,打造一个适合新手(如我)的详细安装教程

准备

  1. 当然是可以上网的机器,可以是虚拟机,VPS,服务器,安装CentOS,其他分支没测试过,最好在虚拟机上先试手一下,因为有snapshot,随时可以回滚所有操作。
  2. 必要时先清空iptables, 关闭SELINUX
  3. 源文件下载的目录是 /usr/local/src

前期工作

更新系统,安装必要的程序,此步骤需要用到yum命令

安装 先下载各个软件包

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cd /usr/local/src
wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.15.tar.gz
wget http://au.php.net/get/php-5.3.16.tar.gz/from/us.php.net/mirror
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/APC-3.1.9.tgz
wget http://mysql.mirror.kangaroot.net/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.62.tar.gz
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.14.tar.gz
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/pcre/pcre/8.30/pcre-8.30.tar.gz?r=http%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Fpcre%2Ffiles%2Fpcre%2F8.30%2F&ts=1335184494&use_mirror=aarnet
wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/eaccelerator/eaccelerator/eAccelerator%200.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2?r=http%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Feaccelerator%2Ffiles%2Feaccelerator%2FeAccelerator%25200.9.6.1%2F&ts=1335276559&use_mirror=waix

然后安装各个库,依次是libiconv,libmcrypt,mhash, mcrypt 和pcre

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tar zxvf libiconv-1.14.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.14
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../
tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf pcre-8.30.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.30
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

一、安装MySQL

首先是添加组

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groupadd mysql
#创建目录,存放data和pid
mkdir -p /home/mysql/mysql-5.1.62/3306/
chown -r mysql:mysql /home/mysql/
useradd -s /sbin/nologin -M -g mysql mysql

然后是解压,编译和安装,注意,我将LNMP需要的应用都放在了

/usr/local/webserver里面

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./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install

修改目录权限,配置文件,因为不是什么大型服务器,所以先复制使用默认的中等配置文件,同时将自带用于启动,重启mysql的文件复制到init.d目录,用于service命令来restart等操作,最后是创建开机启动

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chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --user=mysql
cp -f /usr/local/webserver/mysql/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
#将skip-locking 转换成skip-external-locking
sed -i 's/skip-locking/skip-external-locking/g ' /etc/my.cnf
sed -i 's:#innodb:innodb:g ' /etc/my.cnf
cp /usr/local/webserver/mysql/share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
chmod 755 /etc/init.d/mysqld #添加执行权限
ln -s /usr/local/webserver/mysql/lib/mysql /usr/lib/mysql
ln -s /usr/local/webserver/mysql/insclude/mysql /usr/include/mysql
chkconfig mysqld on #设置开机启动

在my.cnf 的[mysqld]里面增加(或将对应字段修改成)以下:

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log-error = /home/mysql/mysql-5.1.62/3306/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /home/mysql/mysql-5.1.62/3306/mysql.pid
datadir = /home/mysql/mysql-5.1.62/3306/data

重启机器后,mysql会自动启动,接着是设定其root帐号密码,再先将默认帐号密码都去掉

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/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password ‘root '
cat > /tmp/mysql_sec_script<<EOF
use mysql;
delete from user where not (user= 'root ') ;
delete from user where user= 'root ' and password= ' ';
drop database test;
DROP USER ''@ '%';
flush privileges;
EOF
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root –p 'root ' -h localhost < /tmp/mysql_sec_script
rm -f /tmp/mysql_sec_script
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
/etc/init.d/mysqld stop

二、安装PHP

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cd /usr/local/src
tar zvxf php-5.3.16.tar.gz
cd php-5.3.16
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/php
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fpm --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --with-mysql-sock=/tmp/mysql.sock
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS= '-liconv '
make install
cp php.ini-production /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cp sapi/fpm/init.d.php-fpm /etc/init.d/php-fpm #因为php5.3开始自带fpm,使用自带的管理脚本
chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm
chkconfig php-fpm on #设置开机自启动
cp /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf.default /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

然后修改php-fpm.conf,将pid改成以下,并将user和group改成www

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pid = run/php-fpm.pid
user = www
group = www

然后安装eAccelerator

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cd ../
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize #记录下输出
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

修改php.ini,查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension\_dir = "./",修改为extension\_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/",此路径为刚刚的输出路径。再查找cgi.fix\_pathinfo=0,修改为cgi.fix\_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。接着是配置eAccelerator,

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mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

在结尾加入以下内容

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[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"

编译安装apc

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cd /usr/local/src
tar -zxvf APC-3.1.9.tgz
cd APC-3.1.9
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-apc --enable-apc-mmap --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install

然后就是修改/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录下的php.ini,添加apc模块

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extension = "apc.so"
apc.enabled = 1
apc.cache_by_default = on
apc.shm_segments = 1
apc.shm_size = 32M
apc.ttl = 3600
apc.user_ttl = 3600
apc.num_files_hint = 0
apc.write_lock = On

三、安装Nginx

首先是建立好用户组

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groupadd www
useradd -s /sbin/nologin -g www www #www用户不能login
mkdir -p /home/wwwroot #此路径是用于存放各域名的root路径
chmod +w /home/wwwroot
mkdir -p /home/wwwlogs
chmod 755 /home/wwwlogs
chown -R www:www /home/wwwroot

安装Nginx

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tar zxvf nginx-1.0.15.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.0.15/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_gzip_static_module
make &amp;&amp; make install
mkdir /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/vhost/ #用于配置各域名

修改Nginx的配置文件

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rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

输入以下内容

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user www www;
worker_processes 1;
error_log /home/wwwlogs/nginx_error.log crit;
pid /usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
{
use epoll;
worker_connections 51200;
}
http
{
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;
server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
client_header_buffer_size 32k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
client_max_body_size 8m;
sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;
keepalive_timeout 60;
tcp_nodelay on;
fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_buffers 4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;
#limit_zone crawler $binary_remote_addr 10m;
#log format
log_format access '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
'$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
'"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for ';
include vhost/*.conf;
}

这是基本的nginx配置,接着是设定每个域名的配置信息

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cd /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/vhost
vi domain.com.conf
输入以下内容,这样nginx就可以支持php了。注意,请根据自身需要设定`domain.com`
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server
{
listen 80;
server_name www.domain.com domain.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php default.html default.htm default.php;
root /home/wwwroot/domain.com/www;
location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fastcgi.conf;
}
location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
{
expires 30d;
}
location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
{
expires 12h;
}
access_log /home/wwwlogs/domain.com.access.log;
}

然后为刚刚的域名创建root目录 mkdir -p /home/wwwroot/domain.com/www/

因为默认是没有nginx管理脚本的,在此先新建一个,运行vi /etc/init.d/nginx,输入

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#! /bin/sh
# chkconfig: 2345 55 25
# Description: Startup script for nginx webserver on Debian. Place in /etc/init.d and
# run 'update-rc.d -f nginx defaults ', or use the appropriate command on your
# distro. For CentOS/Redhat run: 'chkconfig --add nginx '
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: nginx
# Required-Start: $all
# Required-Stop: $all
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts the nginx web server
# Description: starts nginx using start-stop-daemon
### END INIT INFO
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DESC="nginx daemon"
NAME=nginx
DAEMON=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/$NAME
CONFIGFILE=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/$NAME.conf
PIDFILE=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/$NAME.pid
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME
set -e
[ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0
do_start() {
$DAEMON -c $CONFIGFILE || echo -n "nginx already running"
}
do_stop() {
kill -INT `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n "nginx not running"
}
do_reload() {
kill -HUP `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n "nginx can 't reload"
}
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting $DESC: $NAME"
do_start
echo "."
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping $DESC: $NAME"
do_stop
echo "."
;;
reload|graceful)
echo -n "Reloading $DESC configuration..."
do_reload
echo "."
;;
restart)
echo -n "Restarting $DESC: $NAME"
do_stop
do_start
echo "."
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|reload|restart}" >&amp;2
exit 3
;;
esac
exit 0

为该文件增加执行权限,并设置为自启动

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chmod +x /etc/init.d/nginx
chkconfig nginx on

环境说明

直接输入以下命令,会得到相应的结果

service nginx restart 重启nginx
service mysqld restart 重启mysql
service php-fpm restart 重启php-fpm
service php-fpm stop 停止php-fpm
service php-fpm start 启动php-fpm

各站点的根目录是/home/wwwroot/
应用的目录是 /usr/local/webserver/

各配置文件的存放位置是:
php: /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/
mysql: /etc/
nginx: /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/

FAQ:

  1. 启动nginx的时候遇到 error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1:

答:增加以下软连接,注意,如果是64位系统,对应目录是/lib64

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#cd /lib64
cd /lib
ln -s libpcre.so.0.0.1 libpcre.so.1

参考:

CentOS 6.2编译安装Nginx1.0.14+MySQL5.5.22+PHP5.3.10 http://www.osyunwei.com/archives/3339.html

Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第6版)[原创]http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/ LNMP一键安装 http://lnmp.org/